Monitoring done by global-woods AG,

Kikonda Forest Reserve


Up to date global-woods has conducted 4 major surveys of the living conditions of people in an areas of 5 km around the Kikonda Forest Reserve to find out the impact of global-woods’ activities on the communities. The key methods used are questionnaires, focus group discussions and key informant interviews. The studies were conducted by University of Rottenburg, EACL consultants (2010) Heifer international (2010) and a freelance consultant (2011). Further surveys were conducted by the Sustainability department of global-woods. On top of that, meetings with community members and local authorities are conducted on a continuous basis, their results and follow-up activities being documented. Grievances raised during the studies were dealt with using standard procedures.

The major outcome from the surveys is that global-woods’ activities have a positive impact in terms of employment and increase of trade volume in the communities. Between October 2012 and December 2016, global-woods directly created 619 additional jobs exclusively for the young men and women from the neighbouring communities. Further, the direct community support given by global-woods continues to be appreciated by the neighbours as positive impact. It included:

  • provision of over 300,000 tree seedlings to communities, schools and religious institutions,
  • support to 24 public schools with examination papers twice a term,
  • providing medical services and free immunisation and HIV counselling and testing to the neighbours,
  • training over 1000 people in financial literacy,
  • providing environmental education to over 9000 people in the neighbourhood,
  • training and supporting over 1400 neighbours in livelihood improvement under various agricultural value chains,
  • construction of 21 boreholes, 15 valley dams and 18 rain water harvesting tanks


A feedback and grievance redress mechanism is in place and over 200 grievances have been processed and closed while 227 concerns and requests have been registered, of which 225 have been responded to.

Issues still to be improved are encroachment and the implementation of a well structured Collaborative Forest Management (CFM) framework.

In future, monitoring of the development of livelihood levels of communities will continue to be monitored through surveys and direct interaction.



Safety, Health and Environment

Injury occurrence is monitored regularly in accordance with the company  safety and health procedures. Lost time injuries are those that disable workers from continuing to perform their normal duties on the next shift.

Lost time incidence frequency rate (LTIFR)) is then calculated for the month by using the following formula:  

LTIFR = No of Lost time Incidences x 200000  

                  No of hours worked in that period.

Results indicate that the Lost Time Incidence frequency rate (LTIFR) usually is higher in the months of November to January than during the rest of the year. This is mainly from the many manual operations like slashing and fire fighting, which characterize these months.  However measures are in place to keep these cases below the International standard.

The averages RIFR values for 2015, 2016, and 2017 were 6.3, 4.1, and 4.3 respectively.

With effect from 2017, LTIFR will be used as our measure of compliance. LTIFR values for 2017 and 2018 were 4.12 and 1.83 respectively.

global woods endeavors to keep these incidences as low as possible, through effective specific job trainings before and during work, provision of effective Personal Protective equipment (PPE) to workers and timely First aid treatment to those who may get injured infield.


Plants, mammals and birds monitoring

Plants and animals living in the areas planted by global-woods as well as in the set-aside areas within the Forest Reserve have been assessed by EACL consultants (2010), Dr. James Kalema of Makerere University (2011), Dr. Aventino Kasangaki (2013 and 2014) and Dr Sunday Eric of Makerere University (2015) and Dr Dianah (2016,2017 and 2018) in conjunction with company staff. Methods such as the point counts and line transects are used to asses birds along 5 transects of 2km laid across the different vegetation of the reserve. One transect is located outside the forest reserve for comparison purposes. Along the same transects, mammals are assessed using the sweeping method. Plants are assessed using nested quadrants of 20 by 20m spaced out at intervals of 200m along the transects. Samples of shrubs, liana, herbs and trees were identified in field and Makerere University herbarium

Results by 2018 indicate that the total species list for birds stands at 278 and the species list for mammals stands at 28. Of the 267 birds’ species, 19 of these birds in the category of rare threatened and endangered species were found. Such birds include:

  • brown snake eagle,
  • grey parot,
  • martial eagle,
  • montagu harrier,
  • papyrus gonolek,
  • toro olive greenbul,
  • wooly stoked nake and

Bateleur which is a globally near-threatened bird specie were found. Three mammals including two globally vulnerable that is the African Golden Cat and the Leopard were found. One Mammal in the category of lower risk/near threatened –the sitatunga was found.  

In terms of plants, no plants of high value conservation concern were found.

The monitoring results of 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016,2017 and 2018 show an increasing trend in species richness of birds. Indicator species for plants, avian fauna and mammals have been designated and a biodiversity monitoring protocol is in place. Mammals and birds are monitored bi-annually while plants are monitored every three years. Below is a summary of results for birds, mammals and plants.

Invasive plant species monitoring results

Monitoring of invasive species (namely, bug-weed, lantana, and acacia spp.) is conducted annually, Results of monitoring conducted in 2017 show that the current infestation levels are low. There was a decline in the levels of infestation: i.e from 35 % in 2013 to 8 percent in 2018)

Water quality monitoring

Quality of water is tested every year. Water samples are collected from various sources and delivered to a reputable laboratory (Chemiphar laboratory). The main objective is to find out whether the operations of the company have an impact on water quality and whether the water used for human consumption is potable.

Results of the test conducted in 2014 led to introduction of chlorination cartridges in the water supply system at the forest station to further clean the water before consumption. The water quality tests overtime have indicated that water is safe for human consumption. However,.  Recent tests have indicated contamination of some water source. We are in the process of isolating the source of contamination, cleaning the entire water flow system, installing better water treatment methods using semi-automated Chlorine dispensers. In the meantime, we have  recommended water for drinking to be boiled, use of water guard tablets, installed tripple UV Filters at the station as well as building the new water treatment system .

The water samples from communities whose results were found not safe from pathogens, the various communities were sensitised to boil water before consumption as recommended by the laboratory.

Waste disposal sites

A central waste management site located within the FMU where all waste generated within the FMU is deposited with the exception of medical waste, is regularly checked in accordance with company procedures. The objective is to ensure that all waste resulting from our operations must be properly handled to avoid spillover effects to the safety, health and our environment. The waste management site has been ranked among the best ever seen in the forestry sector and other related businesses.

In 2018, a total of 10,809 kilograms of waste was collected at the central waste disposal site. Of these 8,134 kilograms was non biodegradable while 2,675 kilograms was biodegradable.

Pests and Diseases:

Damage to the trees by pest or disease is visually monitored and recorded on a “Pest and Disease Monitoring” form, occasionally pest and disease experts are invited to the plantation to help in the identification of the pests and diseases and also offer solutions to the problem. The pests that have had occurrences in the plantation are termites, and some caterpillars for moths that have not yet been identified, there have also been Red gum lerp psyllid, squirrels, leptocybe invasa and bronze bug, in 2018, Aphids were also confirmed to be present in the plantation by experts from National Forestry Research Institute. Diseases damping off ND Leaf blight in the nursery,


Nearly the entire area of the Forest Reserve could be used for tree planting. Only few areas have shallow or wet soils to an extent that would not allow trees to be planted. Four different site classes are found within the boundaries of the KFR according to the soil map of Radwanski (1960), these are Ferralsols, Alisols, Plinthosols and Gleysols. This was established during an initial survey of the soils was done by a German student, Matthias Baur, as part of his thesis for Larenstein University in 2007. This covered soil classification and site assessment for the suitability of Pinus Caribaea and other species at the Kikonda Forest Reserve, as well as the susceptibility to degradation

Weather monitoring

Historical data has always been seen as the best way to predict weather trends; as such, daily observations of the weather conditions are continuously monitored at Kikonda Forest Reserve. Results indicate that more 1000 mm of rain was received in 2018; this was normal in comparison to the long term means. As is usually the phenomenon, two rainy peak seasons were noted i.e March-May and September – November).


Summary of monitoring of growth rates, regeneration rates and survival counts.

The growth of trees which forms the basis of the future economic performance of the company is measured annually using a system of app. 200 permanent sample plots. Result show that growth is in the range typical for the country. The mean annual increment for pine is 15-25m3 and the mean annual increment for eucalyptus is 20-30m3.

During plantation establishment phase, tree survival is monitored monthly, Results indicate that there is a good seedling performance in the field for both eucalyptus and pine species (more than 80 percent after the first year of establishment. Regeneration, refer to findings on plants above.

Yield of forest products harvested.

Records on forest products harvested (i.e. timber), show that yields are normally compared with the projected harvest yields. These comparisons show that the harvested volumes are within the acceptable thresholds set i.e.  + or minus 10 percent of the volume yield projected.

Post harvest monitoring

Post harvest assessments done after harvesting operation indicate that there is no damage to conservation areas during execution of harvesting operations. Residual tree tops and branches were left infield as means of stabilizing the ground over against any erosion danger.


Costs, productivity and efficiency analysis; results of analyses are incorporated into plans


Work studies conducted on operations, have been incorporated in setting reasonable work targets for all the operations up to date. The budget is prepared and present and actual costs vs planned are always drawn and monitored to ensure that it runs in line.


Formal records of Contractor compliance monitoring


Contractor compliance is done through routine field assessment during the operations to ensure that the set legal, administrative, and work standards are followed. Where shortfalls were picked up, internal correct actions are always raised and closed timely. Results indicate that there are no outstanding non compliances out of the 98 total corrective action requests raised in 2018.


Fire Preparedness:

Fires are regularly monitored, the causes have mostly been from the neighboring gardens to the forest and the conservation areas, a few were as a result of arson. Management uses these results to improve prevention methods. The FDI during the dry season reaches 38.


Monitoring of illegal activities.


A team of forest guards have been employed to monitor the FMU for illegal activities. A daily Patrol Report” is completed, which is summarized into a monthly report from which quarterly reports are generated and submitted to National Forestry Authority (NFA). In 2018 there was minimal destruction registered on the plantation.  Cattle encroachment was highest in during the months of April, August and November 2018. These were dealt with through sensitizations. 62 cases of illegal charcoal burning were reported in the conservation areas.


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